The origins of the grape and the vine are so old that they have become legend: according to some legends, the vine goes back to Adam and Eve, and the forbidden fruit would have been the juicy grape, not the anonymous apple; The first evidence of vine cultivation is present in Genesis (chapter 9), when Noah, after the flood, docked on the earth, planted a vine and drank its strong wine. More recently, most people claim that the origin of the vine is to be sought in India, from where it spread first to Asia and then to the Mediterranean in the third millennium BC.It is believed that around 7500 BC vines developed. in the region of Transcaucasia, present-day Armenia and Georgia. From then until classical antiquity, grapevine culture spread to almost all countries in the Mediterranean region, reaching the Middle East. It seems that the Muscat and Syrah grape varieties are the world's oldest vines, as the etymology of their names suggests. Archaeological finds date the first experience of grape and wine production in the Neolithic (8000 BC): huge deposits of grape seeds have been found in Turkey and Jordan, suggesting that grapes were pressed. At that time, however, wine was made from wild grapes, and the first evidence of some kind of viticulture was found in Georgia 3000 years later, in the Stone Age. In the West, viticulture was already known in Armenia (Mesopotamia), where the first revolutions of mankind took place, when some communities gave up nomadism, giving rise to agriculture: this is the area of the Fertile Crescent, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the home of cereals and the laboratory where the fermentation processes giving rise to bread, cheese and refreshing drinks were discovered. Some Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to 2500 BC. C. describe the different methods of processing grapes: wine production was so widespread in ancient Egypt that in the tombs of the pharaoh Tutankhamun (1339 B.C.) two amphorae containing wine were also found, on which the production, the vintage and the name of the producer were placed; some of them contained wine aged for many years. Beginning in Egypt, grape production and processing spread among the Jews, Arabs and Greeks: the latter even dedicated a deity, Dionysus, the god of sociability, to wine. It is not certain when Italian viticulture began: the first evidence in northern Italy dates back to the 10th century BC. C. in the Italian region of Emilia. However, what is certain is that today vines have spread to more than 40 countries around the world, although more than half of the world's production takes place in Europe (especially in Spain, Italy and France). In the heart of the Mediterranean, around the 12th-13th centuries, the production and processing of grapes began its journey from Sicily to Europe, spreading first among the Sabines and later among the Etruscans, who became skilled growers and wine producers and spread grape cultivation from the Italian region of Campania to the Padan plain. With the Romans, the processing of grapes into wine became very important only after the conquest of Greece: the first branch turned into love to such an extent that Bacchus entered the company of the gods, and the Romans became great promoters of viticulture throughout the world. Provinces of the Empire. The birth of Christianity and the subsequent fall of the Roman Empire ushered in a dark period for grapes and wine, accused of creating drunkenness and fleeting pleasures; this was also compounded by the spread of Islam across the Mediterranean between 800 and 1400 AD, when viticulture was banned throughout the occupied area. On the other hand, monks, together with Jewish communities, continued, almost secretly, to cultivate vines and to process grapes into wine used in religious ceremonies. We must wait until the Renaissance to again find literature that restores wine, its central role in Western culture and extols its virtues. In the 17th century, the art of coopers became widespread, bottle prices became cheaper, corks began to be used, helping to store and transport wine and thus boosting trade. In the 19th century, the great role of grapes and wine in Western culture became even more central: the peasant tradition is joined by the contribution of eminent researchers who do their best to produce more and more good and quality grapes and wine.